Monday, February 7, 2011
【 Weak current College 】 integrated circuit types and uses 】
In the electronics industry, the application of integrated circuits, each year there are so many General or specialized research, development and production of integrated circuits is out, this article will give a IC knowledge fully elaborated.
Kind of a, integrated circuits
There are many kinds of integrated circuits, as it features different can be divided into analog integrated circuits and digital circuits. The former is used to create, enlarge and handle various analog signals; the latter is used to create, enlarge and handle a variety of digital signals. The so-called analog signal, a range of continuous change over time. For example, one microphone, microphone output audio signal is analog signals, radios, tape recorders, audio equipment and TV set to receive the audio signal, zoom in, the TV signal is analog. The so-called digital signal, refers to the time and amplitude of the signal on a discrete value, for example, Telegraph code signal, press the keys, generate an electrical signal, the signal is generated is not continuous. This is not a continuous electrical signal, usually called the electrical impulse or pulse signal, the signal to run on your computer is pulse signals, but these are the pulse signal represents the exact figures, which are also called digital signals. In electronics, typically the analog signal other than the non-continuous change signals, are collectively referred to as digital signals. Now, home appliance repair or general electronics production, have encountered mainly analog signals; then the contact will be the largest number of analog integrated circuits.
Integrated circuit fabrication process according to its different, can be divided into semiconductor IC, membrane and hybrid integrated circuits. Semiconductor integrated circuit is used in semiconductor process technology, silicon chip manufacture including resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes and other components and functions of a circuit integrated circuits; membrane integrated circuits are in glass or ceramic plate and insulation objects to the "film" forms of production of resistors, capacitors, passive components. Passive components of the numeric range can be quite wide, precision can be very high. But the current technology still cannot use the "membrane" form making Crystal diodes, transistors and other active devices, thus making film IC application range is very limited. In practice, mostly in the passive film circuit plus semiconductor integrated circuit or discrete components of diodes, transistors and other active devices to form a whole, this is the hybrid integrated circuits. According to the thickness of the membrane, membrane integrated circuit is divided into thick film IC (film thickness is 1 μ m ~ 10 μ m) and film (thickness is 1 μ m). In the home appliance repair and General electronic production process encountered mainly semiconductor IC, thick film circuit and a small number of hybrid integrated circuits.
According to the level of integration can be divided into different, small, medium size, mass and VLSI four categories. On analog integrated circuits, as technological requirements are relatively high, circuit and more complex, it is generally believed that integrated 50 following components for small-scale IC, integrated 50-100 scale for components, integration of integrated circuits in more than 100 components for large-scale integrated circuits; on digital integrated circuit, commonly considered equivalent to the integrated 1 ~ 10 door/tablet or 10 ~ 100 components/tablets to small-scale IC, integrated 10 ~ 100 equivalent gate/chip or 100 ~ 1000 symbol/tablets for integration in scale integrated circuit, 100 ~ 10,000 equivalent gate/chip or 1000 ~ 100,000 components/tablets to LSI, integrated 10,000 above an equivalent gate/chip or 100,000 above a symbol/tablets for VLSI.
According to the conductive types, divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar typeIC. Former frequency characteristic of the good, but the power is large, and fabrication of complex, most analog integrated circuits and digital circuits in the ECL and TTL and HTL, LSTTL, STTL-fall into this category. The latter work speed is low, but one small high impedance, low power consumption, making technology simple, easy-to-large scale integration, its main products are MOS-LSI. MOS circuit is divided into NMOS and PMOS, CMOS type.
NMOS Silicon integrated circuits are semiconductor to N-type Channel MOS devices consisting of integrated circuits; participate in conducting electronic.
PMOS-is in the semiconductor wafer, P-Channel MOS devices consisting of integrated circuits; participate in conducting a hole. CMOS-by PMOS transistors NMOS transistors and integrated circuits known as complement constitute complementary-MOS integrated circuit, CMOS IC's shorthand into.
Except as described above in addition to the various types of integrated circuits, and now there are many specialized purpose integrated circuit, called application specific integrated circuit.
Following our first analog IC circuit in different functions.
1. integrated amplifier
Integrated operational amplifier is a high-gain direct coupled amplifier, its interior contains hundreds of transistors, resistors, capacitors, but is only a small volume of power transistors, power consumption is only a few milliwatts to several hundred MW, but feature a lot. It usually consists of transporting people level, intermediate zoom levels and output levels of three basic components. Amplifier inter have ten, a lost person-and output-side, there are ten, a power supply side, external compensation circuit end, zero client, phase compensation-end, public ground-and other additional side, etc. Its magnification depends on external feedback resistance, this gives a great and easy to use. Its kind of a general-purpose operational amplifier, such as uA709, 5G922, FC1, FC31,F005, 4E320, 8FC2, SG006, BG305; generic type ⅲ have F748, F108, XFC81, F008, 4E322; low power amplifier (UPC253, 7XC4, 5G26, F3078, etc.); low-noise amplifier (such as F5037, XFC88); high speed operational amplifier (such as home-made models have F715, F722, 4E321, F318, overseas with uA702); high-voltage operational amplifier (domestic have F1536, BG315, F143); and the current type, single-supply, transconductance type, static type, program-controlled type amplifier.
2. voltage regulator IC
Regulator IC also known as integrated voltage power, its circuit forms most of the in-line voltage. Integrated voltage regulator LDO with discrete components compared to a small volume, high-performance, reliable and easy to use. The type of integrated voltage regulators, many can be adjustable, three adjustable, three-Terminal were fixed and monolithic switching integrated voltage regulator.
Many adjustable integrated regulator high accuracy, low prices, but the output power is small, terminations, to bring inconvenient to use.
How can the mode integrated voltage regulator can be coupled with appropriate external components, current limiting and power protection. Similar products at home and abroad in the form of basic circuit, the basic principle of distinction. Homemade with W2 series, WB7 series, WA7 series, BG11, etc.
Three can integrated voltage regulator adjustable output of high precision, the output voltage ripple, General output voltage to 1.25V ~ 35V or l.25V ~ 35V continuously adjustable. Its models have W117, W138, LM317, LM138, LMl96, etc.
Three-Terminal were fixed output integrated voltage regulator is a tandem adjustment-regulator, the circuit only lose people, output and public three leadout, easy to use. Its models have W78 is voltage series, W79 negative voltage series.
Switching integrated voltage regulator is new a regulated power supply, it works different these three types, it is a DC to AC to DC convertervariable, output voltage adjustable, the efficiency is very high. Its models have AN5900, HA17524, model, widely used in TVs, electronic instruments and other equipment.
3. Audio IC
Single integrated circuits with radios, tape recorders, phonograph equipment development and continuous development.
On the audio circuit require multifunctional, high power and fidelity. For example, a single-chip radio, tape recorder circuit, it must have a frequency and detection. In the low-and-drop, AGC, power amplifier and voltage circuit. Audio IC process technology development, the adoption of digital transmission and processing of the audio system of electro-acoustic indicators. For example, pulse code modulation sound recorder, CD player, make-to-noise ratio and stereo separation shear, distortion is minimized.
Audio IC circuits by itself, there is high, intermediate frequency amplifier IC, power amplifier IC, low-noise preamplifier IC, stereo decoder IC, IC-chip radio and recorder. Driver IC IC and special features.
High, intermediate frequency amplifier ICS are small and compact, automatic gain control characteristics for high, good and low distortion, in radio, Recorder has been widely used. Which model of the am IC FD304, SL1018, SL1018AM, TB1018, etc. FM integrated circuits have TA7303, TDA1576, LA1165, LA1210, TDA1062, etc. Amplitude modulation, frequency modulation with integrated circuit within the AM frequency conversion functions, AM detection function, FM frequency limiting functionality. FM stereo receiver designed for stereo decoding circuit. Late (70 's) products are LA3350, LA3361, HA11227, AN7140, BA1350, TA7343P, etc. Monolithic integrated circuit has become the world's popular a single-chip audio IC. With single-chip radio IC Assembly radio its low cost, ease of debugging. Which ULN2204-am radio integrated circuit, full-featured, 3V ~ 12V voltage range. Similar models have HA12402, TA7613, ULN2204A type, etc.
Special features of the integrated circuit has a display driver circuit, motor speed circuit, automatic selection of circuit and noise reduction circuits, etc.
One double row 5 point LED level display driver IC can simultaneously drive 10 only light-emitting diode, it is high mid-range tape recorders, radios, CD players and other audio equipment, used as a level indicator, AC and DC level indicates, AC and DC supply voltage indicates the common IC. For example, China's production of SL322, SL325, model, foreign LB1405, TA7666P type, etc. 6, 7, 9-point LED level display driver IC model SL326, SL327, LB1407, LB1409 type, etc.
Special features of the integrated circuit in addition to the above, there is automatic selection of integrated circuits, and noise reduction circuits, etc. For example, NE464, LM1101, LA2730, uPC1180, HA12045, HA12028, model, some circuit models have a certain degree of compatibility.
4. TV IC
TV with a wide range of integrated circuits, the model is not uniform, but there is a tendency of SCM and two-piece high integrated development. For the TV IC are listed below:
(1) sound system IC
TV sound system at present, the new trend is to use multiple sound system, TV using a variety of single-chip or more block-TV signal processing integrated circuits-sound. For example, to color TV audio circuit of BL5250, BJ5250, DG5250-associated audio in, audio amplifier IC. The circuit uses a 16-pin dual in-line with a heat sink. D7176P, uPC1353C-sound in, limiting amplifier IC with high gain, DC operating point stability, detecting low distortion, frequency response of good performance, output power, etc. UPC1353C and functionally identical AN1353. Its DC volume control range 80dB, output voltage range 9V-18V, distortion is less than 0.6%, maximum audio output power as 1.2W ~ 2.4W.
For sound in the integrated circuit, amplifier are: D7176, TA7678AD, IX0052CE, IX0065CE, AN241P, CA3065, KA2101, LA1365, TA7176, KC583 type,etc.
(2) row field scan integrated circuit
Row field scan integrated circuit performance better than discrete components circuit, and have integrated scan circuit system incorporates digital automatic synchronization circuit, can get stable field frequency signal, to ensure the stability of the interlaced, may dispense with the "synchronize" potentiometer to adjust the field, improving the degree of automation. For example, D7609P, LA1460, TA7609P, TB7609, model, circuit features: sync separation, farm output, field vibration, AFT, line oscillation protection, etc.
D002 (domestic), HA11669 (foreign) circuit, circuit features have inspired the oscillation, row, row; D004 (domestic), KC581C (abroad), the main function of the circuit is the oscillation, farm output field; D7242, TA7242P, KA2131, uPC1031Hz, LA1358, uPC1378h, model, the main function is to field oscillations, farm output, field excitation; D103lHz, BG103lHz, LD1031Hz, uPC1031Hz-circuit main features are: field oscillations, farm output.
(3) the image, depending on integrated circuits
Early intermediate frequency channels integrated circuit, is completed with three integrated circuits were put in, video detector and AFT and other functions. Now appear in the image, sound and video, row field in three systems of compression in scanned a chip integrated circuit, circuit reduction, to use and debug convenience.
Class IC: D1366C, SF1366, uPC1366, CD003, HA1167, D7607AP, TA7607, AN5132, CD7680CD, HA1126D, HA11215A, TB7607, TA7611AP, LA1357N, AN5150. M51353P, etc.
(4) color decoder IC
Color decoder function is to restore the color signal, the color of the image. Early color decoder LSI is completed by a few circuits, such as homemade 5G3108, 5G314, 7CD1, 7CD2, 7CD3; later used single-chip decoder IC PAL color, such as TA7193AP/P, TA7644AP/P, IX02lCE, uPC1400c, M51338SP, M51393AP, IX0719CE, AN5625 type, etc. The AN5625, such as integrated circuits applied uPC1400C digital filter delay network, all small signal processing is integrated into a circuit, circuit TeSys, feature-complete.
(5) power supply IC
At present most TV's power controls with integrated circuit, circuit types have switched and series.
Switch voltage-stabilized source control IC: W2019, IR9494, NJM2048, AN5900 type; belonging to the series DC IC: STR455, STR451, LA5110, LA5112, STR5404, etc.
(6) remote control IC
Remote control integrated into remote control transmitter IC and remote control receiver IC.
For example, for Hitachi CEP-323D-color TV, Furi HFC-323-TV IC for uPD1943G and LA7234-remote control IC. UPD1934G to remote control transmitter, signal emitted by infrared remote control reception; LA7224 for integrated circuit.
UPD1943G 20 pin plug in encapsulation straight double cited (also has 22 column flat package), and its main parameters and characteristics are as follows:
① for CMOS circuits, characteristics and M50119 similar;
② supply voltage of 3V, power supply current of 1mA; 0.lmA ~
③ the output current to power 0.25W 13mA,;
④ can match with 4 × 8 keys, a total of 32 control function.
M50142P and remote control for a pair of uPC1373H integrated circuit.
The main parameters and uPC1373H characteristics:
① power voltage 6V ~ 14.4V.
② current variation range 1.3mA ~ 3.5mA;
③ allow dissipation power is 0.27W;
④ main characteristics, structures, pin arrangement and LA7224;
⑤ often 4 feet on the ground after another 150k resistance.
5. electronic integrated circuits
Electronic integrated circuits have 5G2208, 5G001, 5G002, CW93520, LM6402, M112, such as model, its Z8611 form only a small button size, internal contains oscillator, note generator and preamplifier circuit, can play 22 ~ 61 basic notes. 5G005 into scale generator, integrated circuit for echo LM8071 master scale generator, it is one of the flower core devices. M208 is a monolithic NMOS integrated circuits, electronic organ within the short array processing 61 keys, and can resist jitter circuit. YM3812 is a new type of electronicCam private sources integrated circuits.
In digital integrated circuit, we only deal with the MOS digital integrated circuits in CMOS circuit. Because in a number of small household electrical appliances, CMOS IC's used more widely.
(1) the characteristics of CMOS IC
CMOS circuit structure, production process is different from the TTL circuits, CMOS IC's power consumption is very low. General small-scale static CMOS IC is less than the average power consumption is various 10uW practical circuit * ** lowest consumption. For example, TTL IC's average power consumption to 10mw is 10 times the CMOS circuit. However, CMOS IC's dynamic power consumption with frequency but increased.
CMOS circuit input characteristics with input current and capacitance said as the circuit of high input resistance, generally smaller than the input circuit; input capacitance 0.1uA is the sum of various stray capacitance, generally around 5pF.
Output characteristics of CMOS circuit depends on the output line forms and features of output tube. Most CMOS circuits available output drive current, logic level and state transition time to represent the output characteristics.
(2) the type of CMOS IC
CMOS circuit types, but the most common is the gate circuits.
CMOS circuit logic gate has a gate, and doors, NAND, nor, or, XOR, xnor gate, Schmitt-trigger doors, bumpers, drives, etc.
Gate also called an inverter, which is only one input and one output logic gates. Transporting people to a high level, the output is a low level; on the contrary, the output is a high level. Output and input are always RP or complementary. And Gates has 2 or more inputs and one output. When all exports are high level, output for high level; as long as there is 1 or more input low level, output level to low.
NAND is when the input has 1 or more than 1 is low level, the output is high; only if all input is high level, the output is a low level.
Or door has 1 or side 2 or more input. When all inputs as low level, the output is a low level. If you have one or more input 1 is terminated, then the output level in disguise. Nor gate circuit is when it into the side is a low level, its output is rendered high level; as long as there is 1 or more input is terminated, the output is a low level.
Exclusive-or gate circuit has 2 inputs and 1 output. When two input terminals only one is a high level, the output is a high level; when the input is low level or are high level, the output is a low level.
Exclusive-or gate down phase becomes xnor gate. Xnor gate, also known as the "same or door". Xnor gate only two inputs, 1 output, when two input is low level or are high level, output level to high; 2 input only one is a high level, the output is a low level.
The most basic line of gate there is a antijamming performance difference and asymmetry, etc. In order to overcome these drawbacks, you can output or input additional RP as the buffer level; can also be output, or input at the same time can be increased by the inverter as buffering level. This circuit is called the comprised of doors with buffer gate circuits.
Door with buffer output circuit outputs are 1 x inverter output drive capability solely by the output stage of the nature of the pipe, and the input is not related to the logic State. Without buffer gate circuits its output drive capability and enter the State. On the other hand. With buffer gate circuit transfer characteristics of at least three-level transfer characteristics of the result, so the converted range narrow, rectangular shape close to ideal, and not with the input of end-to-use several changes, plus buffer gate circuits, anti-interference performance increase of 10 per cent of the power supply voltage. In addition, with buffer gate circuits and output waveform symmetry, AC voltage gain large, narrow bandwidth, input capacitance small advantages. However, as with a cache level, but also some disadvantages. For example, the propagation delay time, therefore, a buffer of door circuit suitable for use in high-speed circuit system.
In digital circuits, because the TTL circuits, circuit CMOS circuits, ECL, their logic level, when these circuits connected, be sure to make each level translation, are working in their respective circuit allows the voltage range.
Digital circuit in the Tri-State logic gate, generally refers to the circuit of the State of the output can be rendered three output impedance state, or simply the "three-State output", this State is usually used said the letter "Z".
Three State circuit is used by two State characteristics and normal circuit are the same, but the prohibition of "Z" status characteristics depend on the 3-door circuit leakage current size.