Wednesday, December 15, 2010

【 Weak current College 】 rechargeable battery knowledge collection 】

Basic electrical formula first to introduce a few very simple basic electrical formula, that does not have an aspect background of readers to several physical phenomena is a bit of a concept. Voltage (V) = current (I) x resistor (R) the amount of electric charge (Q) = current (I) x time (T) power (P) = V I = energy x (W) = P x T = Q x V everything with impedance, impedance and ends with a potential difference will have the charge through the impedance, impedance greater then the unit of time (seconds) for flowed, the smaller the amount of the charge, the lower the impedance of the unit of time through the amount of the charge, the more the potential difference increases if the unit time through the amount of the charge, the more will reduce the potential difference in unit time through, the less the amount of the charge; this difference is called voltage (V), the units are in volts (V), the unit of time through the amount of the charge known as the current (I), in amperes (A), impedance as resistance (R), units of ohm (). the current (I) the greater the intensity expressed per unit time through the number of charges, the more so in the T seconds through the resistance of electric charge number total I x T, describing the amount and the amount of the charge for the charge of nouns (Q), commonly known as power, units for Coulomb (Q)-resistance power consumption (P) as I x V, unit for Watt (W), power consumption, the more power-more representative, consumption of energy (W) x T P, units of joules (J), the longer the greater expenditure of energy, the same time, the greater the power consumption of the consumption of energy is also bigger. For example: a piece of dry battery powered 1.5V 0.5 lamp, the consumption current of 3A, power consumption is 4.5W, 10 seconds total flow through the 30 Coulomb charge, consume 45 joules of energy. Nickel-cadmium battery materials battery there are many kinds of classification, in chemistry are not charging the batteries run out, throw away the battery is a rechargeable battery that can be used more than once the battery is rechargeable batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries is part of the secondary battery alkaline batteries NI-CD batteries a. for materials used in the anode is the oxygen of nickel hydroxide, cathode using cadmium compounds of active substances, the electrolyte is in use, such as alkaline aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide-when charging for nickel-cadmium batteries, will produce above the anode of nickel hydroxide, in the cathode production of cadmium, above which in a potential difference between the two poles;   the nickel-cadmium batteries of anode and cathode at both ends of the external load discharge, vaginal extreme production negatively charged electron flow via an external load, and therefore provide energy anode for external load consumption. Excessive charging on recharging the battery voltage during with storage capacity increases gradually increased, the amount of power when battery storage becomes saturated electrode materials cannot continue to charge, to continue to charge the electrolyte will play electrolysis and anode cathodic produced oxygen, hydrogen, so will result in a sealed battery internal cause internal pressure increases, the battery internal structure damage. like this phenomenon called excessive charging. In order to avoid excessive battery has been damaged, often making the cathode of capacity than the anode large capacity, so when excessive charging anode will become saturated and produce oxygen, while yet saturated without anode production of hydrogen, oxygen diffusion to the cathode after and charging of cadmium absorption off oxygen reacts, and this reaction speed and the speed of metal cadmium, so you can effectively balance to avoid battery of pressure rise. but if the charging current is too large (when using the fast charge) will lose balance, battery internal pressure before the General Assembly will battery safety valve open, hydrogen and oxygen will leak into the battery external pressure reducing valve, until you close the battery is sealed up again, but gas leakage is making internal chemical material reduction, resulting in battery life shortening. Charging voltage of battery charging too much, because the anode cathode of oxygen and generates heat from chemical reaction, makes the battery temperature rises shell perm. due to the higher the temperature, battery charging voltage becomes lower, thus charging battery voltage will continue to rise until excessive charging, the battery temperature will suddenly increase rapidly, rising voltage no longer turn by peak begin to decline. Nominal voltage of powerboy NI-CD batteries in standard discharge condition of discharge, the voltage will slowly decline until when power almost discharged, the voltage will be significantly reduced, this voltage value called nominal voltage. General nickel-cadmium batteries of nominal voltage 1.2V, and generally dry battery Callout 1.5V is the same meaning, are marked in the battery case above. Nickel-cadmium batteries with battery voltage values must be at least to nominal voltage 1.2V above, the stored power more voltage higher. Discharge voltage battery discharge its voltage with battery gradually decrease the reduction, when the voltage drops to the requirements of the position will no longer allow it to continue to discharge, known as discharge termination, but this voltage potential bit called self-discharge. usually manufacturers recommended discharge voltage at 0.9V ~ 1.1V left, voltage discharge to the prospective position power almost beaming, this situation is called a full discharge. nickel-cadmium battery is fully discharged by also not move off load but let it continue to discharge on, then becomes excessive discharge voltage drop rapidly, until the voltage 0V. If not yet fallen to 0V or so on the termination of discharge, the battery voltage automatically rebound to nominal voltage 1.2V around.Excessive discharge of powerboy NI-CD batteries a fatal injury or excessive discharge, will discharge voltage set in that State, not only is there no power can promote the load, the battery life will cause damage and once accidentally let-voltage continued to decline to almost equal 0V, even if you want to terminate discharge to load removal I am afraid it is too late, the battery voltage is not automatically rebound, General charger can't charge and go again to power, its voltage is fixed live over the 0V fixed it at the moment-like stroke like paralysis over there, not to mention the Pack tho, is often a life watching can no longer be used. Battery capacity of the battery capacity is defined to mean the battery discharge until the voltage drop to termination voltage, during this period the amount of discharge-charge-if the current and temperature calibrationStandard discharge conditions, on full power of the battery to discharge until the final discharge, the resulting capacity called rated capacity (or nominal volume) of the size of its capacities to the consumption of electrodes of the amount of active substance, and standard discharge conditions are in accordance with the different battery types required.   capacity is based on the battery's discharge reaction to definition, rather than charging reaction to definition, so we often say how much battery capacity, refers to discharge the accumulated amount of discharge-charge number, instead of charging stream in charge number. Battery capacity of representation on the size of the battery capacity, you can use [(discharge current) x (voltage drops to discharge voltage of discharge time)], the calculation of a value to represent before the introduction of-basic electrical formula, power for the current time, x is the Coulomb (Q), how much the battery if the Coulomb to indicate battery capacity, may be less well understood, so the battery capacity is the current value of x times, directly to C = IT (unit to mAh orAh) to indicate, where c is the capacity (and Coulomb is the same meaning), I was current, A is the ampere, mA said current size is Ho Ahn (one thousandth, amps, A), h represents hours (hour), that is to say to a thousandth of a current discharge one hour of discharge capacity of 1mAh. therefore C = I x T = how many mAh, mAh is Coulomb equivalent representation, usually battery shell wrapper above will indicate a battery rated capacity, used to indicate that the battery's maximum capacity. new nickel-cadmium batteries on the first charge and discharge capacity can be up to the rated capacity, the capacity is the number along with the charge and discharge increases reduce. Example: to 1 ampere of current discharge needs two hours to the battery right then, so the battery capacity is approximately 2000 mAh. If the battery capacity is expressed in a Coulomb, then C = I x T = "1A" x 7200 sec = 7200 Kullen. you also find 2000 mah to represent than 7200 Kullen to represent relatively empty and understand much. C for type batteries in addition to AMPS (or MA) unit to indicate the battery charge and discharge current size, or use the letters C (capacity) as rated capacity (current x time) of the current section to it as the current size measured units. for example, rated capacity of the battery, 600mAh C is 600mA mean, so current 1C is 600mA, current 2C is 1.2mA, current 0.1C is 60mA. after purchase the battery if the specification cannot be found on charge and discharge current in amperes slot, please don't be anxious, don't forget to look how much has been written C Oh. Charging and discharging rate of the so-called filling (drop) rate is to put all capacity charge (charge) after the required time, as filling (drop) the power of standard speed. General used to illustrate drop (rechargeable) how much is the power of speed, for example, the second hour rate of discharge, refers to the use of current, in 0.5C for two hours the full capacity of the battery is placed after therate indicated with .20 minutes 3C currents in 20 minutes battery rated power all placed finish at the manufacturer's battery specifications above, also often use hour rate to represent standard discharge time, as long as the conversion according to the nominal capacity to know what is the standard discharge current!   usually manufacturers rated capacity of the specification is based on the temperature 20 ° c, while the discharge rate is 5 hours 0.2C criteria for measurement. Charging efficiency battery charging and how much power is not possible in just how much electricity cannot be stored, will be devalued, apart from the anode and cathode current leakage between the insulator, the material will not be possible to store all power spotless. remove the battery discharge and power when charging stream into battery ratio, call charging efficiency. Usually battery manufacturers are recommended charging quantity must be a rated capacity of 1.5 times, before the battery charge in full. i.e. 0.1C full of charging current to 15 hours of charging current 3C full half an hour, although the theoretical filling quantity is rated capacity 1.5 times, but the actual fill volume almost exactly rated capacity. Utilization theory, battery, nominal capacity is large, but in fact filled full power before discharge of available power is often smaller than theoretical capacity, indicates that the battery can store the actual storage capacity, and not so large, the actual capacity relative to theoretical capacity utilization ratio called, usually battery discharge current increases, or the surrounding temperature decreases, the utilization rate decreases. Discharge the battery discharge depth of discharge capacity and stockpiled power ratio called depth of discharge, than the percentage for example discharge depth 20% represents power discharge into the remaining 80% capacity level. Cycle life
Usually nickel-cadmium batteries are in the application as repeatedly charging and discharging of cyclical, battery life is limited, the capacity is not likely to remain without the decline in certain work conditions repeatedly charging and discharging, the battery capacity drops to the rated capacity of 80% (or defined in 60%). this repeatedly charging and discharging cycles of life times called it, the higher the life cycle of the battery life longer. some battery reference specifications above will indicate the charge-discharge cycle, the number of written discharge depth about how many times, the intent of cycle life-with the charge and discharge current, discharge depth and other conditions of different charge and discharge, cycle life along with the change, especially with high current charging and discharging, there will be life shortening of the phenomenon of powerboy NI-CD batteries. now just follow the purchase instructions attached to the manufacturer for normal use, usually can be repeatedly used 500 times above.
Battery voltage
The internal resistance of the battery is a voltage source, can be seen as an ideal voltage source (no resistance) series a resistance output. missed loads to the ends of the battery terminal voltage is ideal voltage source of voltage, called open-circuit voltage, battery external loads, the load and resistance in series received the ideal voltage source, so the load on the divider is the battery's Terminal voltage, small in ideal voltage source of voltage, known as closed circuit voltage, the higher the internal resistance of the battery, the voltage of the load may get less, so the ideal battery is notInternal resistance.
The internal resistance of nickel-cadmium battery is very low, generally only a few cents ohm to dozens-ohms, so external size different load discharge voltage is very stable, discharge current curve is flat, you can make use of high-current discharge; general dry battery at a few ohms, discharge voltage instability discharge current curve is flat, comparison of nickel-cadmium batteries belong characteristics better battery.
Batteries due internal relationship will react, internal will self discharge, although not an external load but the batteries stored power with time and disappearing. self discharge rate is called self discharge rate, the higher the temperature around self discharge current is also bigger. According to the experts, the results of the experiment, nickel-cadmium batteries at 0 ° c for about three months will discharge the residual capacity of 20% of the remaining 80%, 20 ° c for about one month, the discharge of 25% for three months of discharge temperature 40%, to 45 ° c, the higher one month already ducking, 70% of capacity. Thus, in the summer when the battery charge full power as long as a few days time, capacity remaining 80% or even 50%, it is no wonder that expert advice, the best method is to save the battery sealed packaging properly post in the refrigerator cold storage (not wet), is not without reason.
Continuous discharge and intermittent discharge
Continuous discharge is the battery in the discharge process does not interrupt, continuous discharge until the battery voltage drops to discharge voltage before stopped, intermittent discharge the battery to discharge process and load the current path between on and off, sometimes breakover time circuit breaker, until the battery voltage drops to discharge voltage until the battery voltage during the discharge will be slowly declining, to temporarily suspend the discharge during the voltage will rise to revert to an associate who didn't stop, and then continue to discharge the voltage from the prospective members begin to decline.
Continuous discharge of actual discharge time and discharge period are the same, but intermittent discharge of actual discharge time during the discharge current path breakover time segments accumulated and comparison of the same capacity-battery in two ways to discharge, in the same termination voltage, due to the battery voltage will reply, intermittent discharge of actual discharge time than continuous discharge of actual discharge time longer, and intermittent discharge means the release of capacity than continuous discharge of discharge capacity also.
General batteries have such phenomena, using a large current to discharge-discharge capacity will be virtually reduces the use of many that indirectly discharge mode than continuous discharge means many more capacity, especially when battery external heavy load (load resistance smaller) the more obvious when the difference-the internal resistance is smaller nickel-cadmium batteries short-circuit current discharge curve flattened characteristics better, generally use continuous discharge and intermittent discharge capacity is not much difference, but electric gun motor in the still-functioning starts, the impedance is very low, heavy load caused by the battery's discharge current is large, intermittent discharge means the effect is obvious.
According to the experience of using electric guns, automatic shooting often play no hundreds of fat cells to be startled by the dead, and advertising on the continuous shooting is 1000 rounds of boast far, not knowing the difference is that the battery is not good or what quality, young's hasn't been you ruin is lacking, or start to doubt the stun gun's internal problems mecabox. but if you are willing to try restraint is not so excited, as far as possible using single shooting and the use of automatic assailants squander BB shell, you will find that your battery is also possible to make a hundred made no problem, the battery quality good play from launch to do comparison objectively analyses.
Effect of temperature on the battery
Nickel-cadmium batteries is the reaction of a chemical substance, chemical material movements often self consumption, in high temperature environment of self consumption will be more serious, the capacity is reduced, they may have leakage and rusty condition, at a high temperature for charging and discharging is causing damage to the battery-nickel-cadmium battery life reduction can be stable working temperature range is very broad, charging about 0 ~ 45 ℃, discharge of about-20 ~ 60℃, saving about-30 ~ 45 ℃, usually a good idea to save at a cold but not humid place.
Temperature about battery and charging and discharging characteristics of a large, charge and discharge when the ambient temperature is higher, then the battery material destruction, a version of the active substances of the function to reduce the capacity decreases, anode cathode isolation Edition version of the isolation caused a short circuit, insulation and lower temperatures the battery's voltage becomes lower, charging and discharging efficiency reduces the capacity of many battery greatly reduce accordingly unless use of powerboy NI-CD battery is heat-resistant type, otherwise you should pay attention to the charging and discharging batteries of temperature, do not use too much of the current charge and discharge so that the temperature is too high.
Charging method
Nickel-cadmium batteries if not to when a standby power supply for use, but rather to repeatedly of charging and discharging to use, according to the current size of the battery can be divided into standard charge charging and rapid charging (the fast charge) two, standard charge refers to reference the battery rated current capacity to 0.1C, battery for 14 ~ 16 hours of charging, i.e. charging capacity about battery rated capacity 1.5 times when the battery is almost completely filling the rapid charging is full. uses large charging current and charging voltage and current at the end be controlled to prevent overcharge. rapid charging current size around in General about, enables to 0.3C in 4 to 6 hours to fully charge, now some rapid transient type of battery, to 1.5C or larger currents do Super fast charge, in less than an hour of very short time in the charging operation.
General type of powerboy NI-CD battery for fast charge to charge the resulting gases will not absorb very quickly will seriously affect the battery life, although the standard number of hours of charging time consuming, to batteries can be used longer good is to comply with this way of filling better. fast filling of battery is more able to withstand high current, however the use of high-current charging the battery, is absolutely no good, different brands of batteries of uneven quality good, the bad actors as advertised by the manufacturers specifications are exaggerated and not know, unless the battery's performance reputation of reliable, timeDo not hurry, preferably in a standardized manner to charge. Use rapid charging in overcharge prevention in detection method, the more common have fixed voltage control, temperature increase control and control, or a mix of three ways.
Fixed voltage control
When the battery voltage up to voltage must stop charging when Lady-this way is the simplest way, as long as the battery voltage characteristic know batteries increased curve, you can detect voltage is set to the nearest filling a full access, different styles of full battery charge voltage of quasi-phase different, new and old batteries characteristics are different, use this method to set the desired voltage. this way is simple but also very dangerous, said before the temperature is high battery voltage decreases to high current charging more will increase the battery temperature, so the batteries may have sufficient enough but the voltage has not reached the set of bits, and the battery charge voltage no longer increases well-fed and begin to decline, so the consequences of the overcharge is quite serious, if coupled with an internal short circuit the battery charger is equipped with protection circuits, once the danger caused by excessive current, Tad in this way charging period, users must be aware.
Temperature control
Battery charge and capacity tothe saturation of oxygen in the cathode and CD thermal oxidation reaction, battery temperatures begin to rise quickly, using this phenomenon detected when the temperature reaches a certain level of both end charging. on the same charge capacity, the greater the charging current in increased by higher temperatures, hence if the charging current is too large, when its intended temperature of the battery might not have saturated, but current if it is too small, the oxidation of absorption fast temperature does not rise significantly, charging action will continue but do not know how to terminate. Furthermore this way is limited by the surrounding temperature, unable to distinguish the battery temperature is internal heat generated by the chemical itself, or the surrounding environment of high temperature and misjudgment, therefore this way in high temperature environment will charge less than the low-temperature environment will charge excess.
Charging the battery voltage with the charging capacity increases and increased, when the charging capacity reaches saturation, voltage rises to a peak, and go and start to decline slowly this voltage drop in the use of characteristics can be used to control the charging voltage termination, to decrease or stop charging when reached, usually of powerboy NI-CD battery its 1.2V decrease almost be 20mV above (actual data must reference the battery specification), in the charging process can meter clear observation. battery voltage charging curve being charge current and temperature, in the same charge capacity, the greater the current or the lower the temperature, the voltage rise of relatively large, the magnitude of the decline is more obvious. current smaller or the higher the temperature, the voltage rise rate of decline in smaller, more flat rate not easily resolved. therefore control comparison applies in rapid charging way, and to avoid temperatures make detection failure, usually with temperature rising to control, to prevent overcharge.
Nickel-cadmium batteries with saved too long is not used, or is already collapsed, then the first initial charging again a few minutes, and sufficient voltage occurs not only looks and also to decline scenario and then rise, causing the termination charge of misjudgment. control modes are better controls, features a different battery still available characteristics to fully charge the battery for more do not have to worry about voltage control or temperature setting out problems and damage the battery.
At present many of the advanced microcomputer control battery charger is the use of such control, and the price is higher than normal charger expensive, some even calling out names, in fact its control program and the charging circuit design is not how good, often there are cases of false positives, is not a necessary and sufficient that the battery can fry an egg, which is even and haven't filled to the strike and sufficient to judge the battery is full, so better charger in addition to the increase in temperature control, and then under charging time, voltage and current of size changes, the calculated charge capacity, and figure out whether the battery is already saturated.
The above three methods are fast-charging, charging the end, follow the battery will self discharge characteristics, are generally impose on batteries continue to trickle charge of Supplement to cover battery leakage current, and rapid charging is not guaranteed to be able to reach 100% of the full charge for the additional charge small current to just be able to fill the gaps in capacity, usually supplement current size in about 20 ~ C/C/40 between General charger when using rapid charging mode the battery after termination, are straight line into the so-called slow filling mode, there is little current to battery charging continues. in this mode, the tiny current almost will not let the battery much heat, nor will it allow voltage changes significantly, thecharger almost always designed to have the purposes of supplementary charge and will not automatically stop, though also in getting the battery charging too, but in order to avoid increasing nickel crystallization phenomenon, users still have, where appropriate, the duration of the supplementary charge.
Capacity estimates
Battery capacity to estimate how many, often total are inseparable C = IxT calculation. battery discharge current flow through the battery when the size, is the battery terminal voltage, load resistance, battery discharge capacity is for, is the voltage of the battery time. is along the length of the discharge time gradually reduced, to estimate more accurate methods of discharge capacity, is the use of integral, played from the beginning to discharge voltage drops to termination voltage until that time, every time the voltage value after conversion into current up to the time integration, you can get very accurate discharge capacity.
Because the battery's discharge curves and nonlinear, and for each point of the current change is difficult to calculate, and therefore are usually approximate estimations using integrals, will time subdivided into many hours, capture every time a reference point for the voltage value (or the period of average voltage value) as the time of the voltage value, every time their computing its discharge capacity, then each slot capacity became the discharge capacity of the approximate time the more cutting-fine more accurate, but it is very difficult to artificial calculation, only with micro-processing capabilities of the charger toDo precision calculations, and to manually calculate possible to big time calculate the approximate values.
Another relatively simple but error larger estimate, is in the discharge period can freely choose a few suitable point in time (including discharge start and termination), the calculation of the area of the trapezoid formula to calculate, for each time point of discharge capacity, will the entire discharge during the discharge capacity to get rough discharge capacity.
Electric gun subject to guns being relationship between spatial narrowness, can only be packed down smaller current limit is also a small battery, to promote electric gun motor such heavy load is heavy, large current shortens the life of powerboy NI-CD batteries reduces the available capacity, especially gun mates like gun to especially strong, replace a stronger spring is to let the battery and motor for too much, so torn down battery depletion quite serious, often charging and discharging to dozens of times the battery capacity is reduced to less than 50%, during the short range rather large decrease accordingly adopt the formula for calculating the trapezoid area, to use in electric guns of nickel-cadmium batteries estimating is acceptable.
To measure voltage, current, and resistance, the most convenient and easiest tools are three meters, lots of guns and friends in order to understand their own battery status are available in three use the electric meter, usually in addition to General Electric measurements, the battery charge and discharge is also used to assist the charger on the change of voltage and current, to grasp the process for obtaining the best estimation of the situation is usually the value is just an approximate value, rather than theoretical capacity, also a bit less, but as a reference for measuring battery life indicator is more than adequate.
Memory effect
Nickel-cadmium battery discharge if not be full of discharge, but to specific discharge depth to repeatedly discharge charging, then in the iterative process of charging and discharging a few times, because each battery has a residual capacity, the battery will be mem phenomenon and the discharge voltage value memory live, when the battery is no longer only to discharge depth to discharge, voltage gradually declining more than being memory live voltage, battery voltage will suddenly collapse of rapid decline in large prospective Member, then continued slowly declining, this phenomenon is called the memory effect.
Memory effect is generated repeatedly charging and discharging, in practice, this repeatedly to specific discharge depth charge and discharge of many, like cameras, cell phones, shavers etc. memory effect does not affect battery capacity, but the characteristics of fixed voltage collapse of great influence on the load, are often not accepted by the load and tantamount to a low power, unable to continue to drive load. Thus, although after the formation of memory effect is still considerable capacity, but you can use the capacity is reduced a lot.
Memory phenomenon in the surrounding temperature high apparent when, using low charging current (C/15 below) will have the phenomenon of the memory, so use it to pay special attention to the working temperature, and do not use too small current to charge. memory effect after forming, to eliminate memory effect caused by the impact, it must be done on the battery or two full charge and discharge, to C/10 ~ C/2 of the charging current, C/2 ~ 1C of discharge current for, you can more effectively eliminates memory effect when you full discharge., rated voltage of the battery whenever 1.2V to manufacturers recommended discharge voltage, there is no residual capacity around you, don't 0.95V discharge so as not to damage the battery.
Cadmium crystallization
Nickel-cadmium batteries, growth will be in the cathode of cadmium from dendritic crystals, especially long-term overcharge or small current long-term charging more easily generated, the crystals will make the electrode surface of activation area declined while reducing capacity battery cells for nickel-full discharge is solubility of cadmium Crystal will disappear, but in general discharge applications rarely fully discharge the battery still have residual, capacity, repeatedly of charging and discharging makes crystals increasingly baseincreased extension, relax through isolation panels between two poles and touch the anode, resulting in short circuit between the two poles caused significant leakage. therefore to eliminate cadmium crystallization phenomenon like eliminating memory effect so that each charge and discharge after a number of occasions, for a full discharge to discharge capacity.
Electric guns of the battery
Nickel-cadmium battery nominal voltage is 1.2V, if batteries line up, overall voltage is concatenated operation voltage-although increased times the rated current, but does not change, however, has not increased in Oh, for charging and discharging batteries in series, don't assume that allow working current increases in times of high current to charge, then the battery is explode is not known, but cause overheating dissolution and destruction of a short circuit caused the fire is very likely.
Currently Marui electric gun series mostly use internal structure similar to that of similarities between spring strength but also, in order to cope with the motor mecabox driven Marui customized dedicated of powerboy NI-CD battery, 600mAh with 7 star 1.2V monomer packaging into 8.4V battery series, brand new battery is fully charged after about shooting around 1000 fat due to electric guns, but the power is not strong, most of the gun-mates will separately purchased conversion kit, including the spring into strong point, makes the original battery capacity of the drive, and full power down after firing dozens to hundreds of hair, or even fully pushed fixed gear causing excessive current burning fuse, greatly reduce the battery life.
There was this, gun-mates solution, namely purchasing larger-capacity battery (for example 2000mAh), or in-line more batteries, in order to make up for the promotion of capacity of regret. will the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are described below.
1. enhance the capacity
Electric guns to strong currents increase after consumption, hope can be bear large battery current, and you want to charge more than adequate BB can play a few rounds, the use of large-capacity batteries is the best solution. Rated capacity, the larger battery which can withstand the charge-discharge currents also bigger, as long as the change of spring not too strong, you do not have to bear the driving motor of high current too hurt battery, large capacity, let gunmen not be carrying several spare battery, no longer has hit no hair have to dismantle gun replacement battery problems.
Larger battery relative volume is relatively large, inNarrow gun body is not much space inside can accommodate battery, different styles of gun is also reinforced by the battery parts, usually for no fixed butt internal as well as former nurse-wood, partly fill the gap in other small-can now enter into the large battery stopper, probably only certain gun-type fixed butt, 2000mAh or displace large battery barely no problem in getting stuffed into it-the gun-type, the large batteries battery bag tied to gun body outside the wire connector, direct from the slit la into gun body connected. of course, don't spam looks ugly undermine gun beauty is inevitable, and heavy battery also increase quite a burden on the arm, but use battery bag plug-in also has a good battery can obtain better heat dissipation, the life is better than filling in a closed gun body internal perm also long.
Battery model many more, some AA type (size 3, dry electrostatic similar) nickel-cadmium battery capacity about certain style around, 1000mAh gun space license Seidel, if no change is too strong a gun receives this capacity and to be acceptable, there is no need to plug these big battery.
2. increase the voltage of the external battery chouchou looks the other many unacceptable, Hey beautiful a gun a surface had increased significantly in the battery pack Tuo, called How do not feel it accordingly many like-minded friends in space permitting, to purchase batteriesto welding to 8 ~ 10 batteries conspiracy to provide 9.6V above higher voltage, hoping to increase fire bombs quantity.
Although battery push the motor with the capacity of consumption voltage gradually reduce internal resistance increases, the current has gradually decreased, when current small motor does not promote the gear and stopped, the residual capacity of battery is pretty much the stronger the residual capacity of spring, larger such increase the voltage of the method will let the current flow through the motor, motor comparison is not easy because the current is strong enough, the residual capacity of gear dragging is also smaller, piston stroke each turn a bullet shot on many a one has however noted that the battery capacity of the series did not increase when, in the same battery capacity, the current consumption increase makes the motor speed increases, the bullet firing speed increased (FA/min), the opposite may allow for shooting time.
Therefore this way use in single shot, you can increase the number and time of the shooting, but use in automatic shooting, played very fun, but soon they filled bullet (is money), and replace the backup battery. in the game may have superior fire fire did not go on the other, to quickly can play the best assistance overwhelming, but good heroic martyrdom.
Smaller capacity battery boost voltage, are light weight and high fire rate of benefits, but also withstand high currents, used to push the M100 spring (muzzle velocity 100m/s) life also no problem, if you wish to drive stronger spring, with the bulk of the batteries to drive is the correct method. Charger's choice in Taiwan Electric gun sales out of very many, but it is difficult to see as electric gun design dedicated charger, because Japan has produced the dedicated charger, introduction of Taiwan is expensive and therefore nobody, Taiwan's BB gun enthusiasts, spontaneously when a prodigal to deal to buy expensive Japan plastic BB gun, is a very easy thing, but to call Taiwan's Prodigal, took out the difference at high prices to buy Taiwan everywhere buy 『 charger 』, is unlikely to matter in sale of dedicated charger profit than electric gun, shops also sell interest.   gun shops often have sales of used such as remote control model above the charger, and so on, many gun-mates also will point to use, but purchased fastidious gun friends or separately to find themselves satisfied with the charger. Electric gun battery consists of 7 ~ 9 stars 1.2V battery strings, each battery charge full power voltage to rise to approximately around, so 1.4V charger output voltage must be at least 10 ~ 13V above must drive capability, to do the battery with a fully charged electrical gun use battery capacity from 600mAh ~ 2000mAh above all, to be able to size the charger-eat must be able to provide enough current to, otherwise only small current slow charger remarks, on the eve of the battle you can have all night, keep a heap queue waiting for charging batteries. ", the kind of charger specifications may not necessarily apply, there is a battery holder for UM-3/4/5 and other small battery design, some are using large aerial connector and your battery connector out, some provide battery voltage is less than the number or meet your battery needs, different features and different price points, would like to find in full compliance with the requirements of the charger is depends on luck.   If on the gun shop looking for the display of the models are not satisfied, but hard to remote control model shop, cell lines, as well as electronic materials rows Snoop to see if you can find-was not found satisfactory charger, so I'll just have to point to buy more electrical characteristics compatible, to purchase electronic material lines connect wire and compatible head their soldered, temporarily unable to use it, wait for a future opportunity arises and then replaced. General Electric r/c model of powerboy NI-CD batteries, is also used to promote the consumption of high-current motor, electrical characteristics and stun gun is very close, however remote control model using the charger and even though there are many but are not designed to use electric gun, its output voltage range, the more common output voltage is too low, especially with battery used to charge the battery of UM-3/UM-4 type, purchase this class when you must monitor the charger charger indicate specifications, understand what it offers is the height of the voltage range, the charging current is large, enough to fill your battery charge and without any problems. General situation rechargeable six unit voltage of charger 7.2V, used to charge 7 ~ 8 bright single bunch of battery is also acceptable, but it should be noted, has not yet been filled on a full battery charger voltage due to misjudgment and semi-automatic termination charge, use the time observation of temperature and pressure drop battery changes, some several times more charge battery charging capacity after to compare nearly saturated. In the remote control model has a more advanced charger, internal is a A/D conversion interface of microprocessor control, how to detect the battery saturated capacity, appearance with LCD monitor, you can displayAs shown in the battery's voltage, current, and has a value of charging and discharging capacity, and even check the battery is good or bad this kind of charger usually provides the necessary fast charge, slow, fast charge fast forward, slow, fast forward, fast-and-drop features such as the fast charge, charge current size can be adjusted by the consumer on their own, some small scope to mA to-few amps can be, and the number of monomer battery range is approximately 4 ~ 8 stars or more, the user can according to your battery status decided to use modes of operation, not to worry about charging or discharging such charger fully meet the needs of electric gun, xiaoben bird charger is belong to this type, you can add 4 ~ 9 dual voltageof single threaded modules, 270mAH ~ 4500mAh of capacity, 0 ~ 6.5A of charging current, auto DC power supply or AC power, very convenient in use, not only have to worry about the battery charge and discharge, you can display the data at any time to grasp the battery of the various conditions. Many friends they have guns, power supply, so you save money no longer separately purchased charger. power supply can provide tremendous voltage and current, to charge the battery must be very careful that the charging current is adjusted too high, first of all you must adjust the current limiting size to your hope of charging current size, adjust the voltage up to quickly close to the battery charge voltage potential bit saturated, before putting the battery grafted in the streets after battery power supply, voltage meter will drop down to the battery's voltage, current meter display battery charging current, much attention during the charging battery temperature and voltage and current of the current rapid changes to decrease the battery voltage is sufficient to close the voltage value you set, if you find that the voltage rises to a level slightly declined again, your power supply voltage adjustment is too high, and now the battery is charging to saturation voltage and begin to decline, I believe you have a little bit later, the battery is already boiling hot, you must immediately remove the battery stopped charging. Use the power supply charger is a very dangerous thing, voltage and current adjustment is not good battery charge and will be reimbursed in full power without a little attention to charge back the battery also claims, in particular in charge who is not in standby, the next to go elsewhere and forget is charging, in case of unexpected events occur that positive and negative ends of Alligator Clip collision, even if the power supply has a protection circuit, short circuit of nickel-cadmium batteries is likewise may cause a fire, a fire risk, and therefore must be very careful, it is best to supply end-plus timer to add another layer of protection measures. Making arresters general price charger does not provide discharge function, to avoid memory effect must, in order to produce arresters in a timely manner on the battery to full discharge. resistance is the most simple arresters, depending on your desired maximum discharge current select appropriate resistance value, be connected to the battery connector at both ends to discharge. Suppose you wished to discharge current less than 300mA, and your battery is 7 bright bunch into nominal voltage 8.4V, residual power voltage range in between 8.4V ~ 9.8V, therefore you must select the minimum resistance value must be above resistance must endure-300mA of current, therefore and the resistance of the rated power must be big in order to avoid battery overheating and smoke burnt to resistant against high temperature and can withstand this power, is the best choice for cement resistors, electronic materials sales, price is less than ten dollars in discharge of thermal resistance is cement, users never to touch to avoid sunburn. Perhaps the reader thought it had to consider two questions, how do I know it has been put out electricity is there a way to automatically stop discharge without ever firing it, of course, is a method of Luo! cement resistors threaded a small bulb turbine vehicle, when the lights Dim off knew power is almost beaming. be that as it may, but do not know the voltage dropped quasi-phase already low, and the person you want to watch it next to it is also very silly waste of time, so you can buy electronic materials row is called a diode (Diode) of electronic components, devices and only two feet a straight end of negative, must now end connected to more than more than just power 0.7V when diode is on, if it is positive and negative connected backwards diode not conduction. one (or more stars) diode, cement resistors and bulb bunch together, when the battery voltage drops to 0.7V (or diode number x0.7V), the battery will not discharge,. If you didn't add diode million accidentally battery voltage 0V is discharge to what now when voltage remains at 0V cannot rise, to use the charger has not only failed to power charger into the charger and is determined as a short circuit, compare the charger almost protected circuit to do well also burned. xiaoben birds also met in this case, the solution is to use the power supply, electric current to battery can withstand the maximum current, voltage to 0V to reduce spark, battery powered after the power supply is short-circuit condition, the voltage knob slowly upward, usually does not require 10V to normal status, where you can hear the sound of Kazan in a moment of pointer voltmeter jump to normal voltage location, battery has been restored to normal nominal voltage of quasi-phase.   battery is rescued by power supply strong current impetus on battery electric shock forced the battery and back again, if the battery has been stopped at 0V not immediately processed, battery internal will react, the longer you saved hope is more elusive. Battery DIY Marui customized 8.4V 600mAh of nickel-cadmium battery quality good, serve to strong electric gun is not a problem, unfortunately in Taiwan sales price is very expensive, plus the gun-mates don't like playing too weak gun, like gun to strong point, then Marui battery good, useless, has to be more appropriate to replace the battery of the gun store and agent-itself to the battery manufacturers supplied various types of batteries in a gun shop sales, price ratio Marui battery low nearly half, but many like we like this poor, sometimes is itself to the battery bank to buy batteries for welding, own DIY may not be able to compare how much cheaper, but you can pick and choose their favorite brands, the capacity of the battery, as well as the demand for love gun into proper shape arranged. Similarly a battery in a different cell lines or electronicmaterial, price varies widely, Japan comparison famous manufacturers such as TOSHIBA, Sanyo and manufactured quality is also good,Koguryo packaging not only have, STW, MADE IN JAPAN, the words of the battery, is dubious of counterfeit goods, buy Taiwan-made well, buy-to-continent forged Japan cargo quality is very low.   for electric gun, if there is no change, how gun MADE IN JAPAN batteries can also be used for a long time, if these have changed the gun battery does not fit, cycle life is very short. Marui battery as well as General Japan is factory-made battery, the first few times charging capacity can reach 600mAh no problem, here let electric gun destroyed several times, the capacity or retain nearly around, and cycle 550mAh life is very long, charge and discharge characteristics are also very good in getting MADE IN JAPAN-and other brand battery, first be filled 600mAh is possible, but after some time the charge and discharge can then charge to 400mAh-500mAh above seems to have somewhat reluctantly, have filled in the charging process is boiling hot, cycle life is short, some charge and discharge once or twice, the charging current is too small or not filled in, although still new battery, but can only die Madang alive from the hospital to the fast charge hard charger.   Japan is factory battery price of course is more expensive, but in the electron gun motor torn down, life but bottom too few zapai battery. Cell lines are there to help people welding gun battery, do not trust their friends welding technology so you can own welding, welding some matters need attention. motor is low-impedance, wire of resistance must be very little will to power wasted on the wire, when the battery wire is thicker, the better to plug it into the connector to the refer, inside line onion not too small, you can then use expensive iron Efron wire or conductive silver wires, etc. more wire aerial wire end-of-the connector has size female Division, reference gun body of the coupling type to use, plug the connector of the inside of metal wire sheath clamp after welding fine so as to avoid the resulting bad wires to solder to. battery must avoid soldering iron in direct contact with the battery, so as not to damage the battery battery overheating, it should first be solder wire welded in, and then quickly wire welding in battery polarity, and make sure the Tin is solubility stick surface gloss, no loose or impedance excessive conditions.   welding remember not to cause battery anode and cathode shell of a short circuit, eyes and fingers away from the welding point, lest short-circuit be Burns and scalds are spillage of solder. Some of the Gun Club in order to improve the battery voltage, directly to the old battery direct coupled with a new battery, this is the wrong approach, because there is a remnant of the old battery capacity above does not equal the new battery and has the capacity, and the deterioration of the battery properties already, and the new battery thread, so the old wood received a new piece, not only the new wood did not live to old wood no better, and it's going to turn around and make a new combination of battery worse. battery in series, through every single current is equal, each increase (or decrease) of power is equal to, if charging one's capacity to continue to charge before saturation, then it will be too weak charge, voltage drop than other dual voltage increase and thus unable to detect the charger and continue filling, filling the heart broken can no longer charge and discharge, the other one don't want to be able to flow through the current. Similarly to discharge capacity less first look, then continue on the dual will first have to discharge, and then into reverse charging, the battery will reverse the charge explains how to do, and so other Star on the almost light when it is negative voltage, these batteries are also reimbursed. When you are old and new mixed with the rechargeable battery is found low power when using time is short, the battery is almost thrown away, you don't know which of my battery has been damaged. new battery prior to welding to ensure that every power is empty or power equivalent, typically every new batteries are filled with small power, you can directly welded, not on some do charge and discharge, based on the same principle, different rated capacity of battery is threaded together is not feasible, but additional troubles. Battery after soldering, packaging, batteries and they could certainly have battery line dedicated heat shrinkable plastic packaging, the battery pack into the heat shrinkable plastic, with hair dryer and drying them evenly, it shrinks it tightly wrap battery. If you can't find the battery line, to the hardware store or rubber line should find heat shrinkable plastic or HRAT, substitutes. If after the cooling-performing packaging, can not expose batteries to areas open thread at several small hole to help heat. Safety of nickel-cadmium batteries is the energy density of very high energy storage components, not to consume energy, internal resistance of the component is very small, external load discharge curve flattened, positive and negative ends short-circuit current in quite large, heat and sparks can wire and welding point into destroying fire. with a view to preventing the event, nickel-cadmium batteries usually do not use the best first discharge, then save in dry cool place, never reset to humid Office to avoid short circuit. nickel-cadmium battery heating time chemicals have also been damaged by leakage rust, reduce life conditions, you should avoid disposal in high temperature or Sun Office. Nickel-cadmium batteries especially non-reset in the fire, or the internal gas and electrolyte boiling due to overheating will cause the shell to burst, the skin or eyes by spillage of the electrolyte is harmful.

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