Sunday, January 16, 2011

College】 【weak EPC and other RFID standards Q】..

<br> 1, Q: What is the standardization of RFID?. <BR> A: RFID is the various manufacturers had in their own way independent of each other and developed under the standards set out, so the lack of uniform and .standardized.. Because of this, it is difficult in large-scale system was applied.. The popularity of RFID technology, eager to areas such as the operation of the logistics sector as a very wide area of RFID standardization `very seriously.. RFID .tags and readers have standardized communication protocol between, and the tag ID of the format and structure of data retrieval and so on.. 2, Q: What is the EPC?. <BR> A: EPC stands for Electronic Product Code, the .Chinese called the Electronic Product Code.. EPC is the RFID tag carrier, and use the Internet to achieve the transfer of information.. EPC every single product is designed to establish a global, open identity standards, and worldwide on a single product tracking and .tracing, in order to effectively improve supply chain management and reduce logistics costs.. EPC is a complete, complex, integrated system.. 3, Q: EPCglobal is what kind of organization?. <BR> A: EPCglobal Chinese explanation for the .global Electronic Product Code Management Center, is the Electronic Product Code (EPC) management institutions in the world, it is affiliated to the International Article Numbering Association (GSI), is a global user participation, and neutral., non-profit standards organization. .. It is through the International Article Numbering Association (GS1) in 103 countries and territories worldwide coding organizations (Article Numbering Centre of China) to promote and implement the EPC work, including: promotion of EPC standards; management of EPCglobal Network; implementation of the .EPC system. promotion work; and include the MIT University MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), including seven Auto-ID Labs research and development cooperation.. National coding system, members of the organization responsible for managing EPC standardization of registration and, in the .local promotion of EPC systems, provide technical support and training.. United States, Wal-Mart, IBM, Microsoft, the British Tesco, the Netherlands, Philips Japan, DNP and other hundreds of companies are members of EPCglobal.. 4, Q: .Electronic Product Code EPC and EAN · UCC coding relationships?. <BR> A: EPC encoded with EAN / UCC code-compliant RFID coding standards.. The same as any code, EPC code must have a carrier, through articles posted on the .carrier, goods can be identified and recognized.. EPC RFID tag is the only carrier, EPC has become GS1 (UCC and EAN merger by the establishment) of a major business.. EPC codes and EAN / UCC code is compatible, the realization of .the unique identifier of a single product, and EAN / UCC codes are mainly identified on the product category.. 5, Q: EPC code is what constitutes it?. <BR> A: EPC encoded by 96 bits of digital composition.. .Members with the barcode in a few years manufacturers have a similar distribution of number, product number and other numbers above.. RFID is higher than the standard bar code identifier.. Its main feature is the use of it in manufacturing, distribution, sale and .use until the re-use to effectively manage the entire process of product, and help develop the best products in circulation management.. From the composition of EPC codes can be seen that the large amount of data, not only for the hundreds of millions of .enterprises, and each company can more than 1,000 kinds of commodities, each commodity can be a single product endowed 68 billion.. 6, Q: EPC RFID standards for use under what band?. <BR> A: Despite the existence of low .-frequency, high frequency, UHF, UHF and other bands even have the use of RFID, but the EPC coding standard is used UHF UHF (ultrahigh frequency) band (860MHz-960MHz ..). The UHF band has been mobile phones, radio .and other wireless business usage.. Countries in order to reduce the frequency of not cleaning up some of the impact, each chosen for the different frequency bands within the UHF RFID only.. The United States use 915MHz, the European choice 868MHz, Japan at .the end of the second generation of mobile phones will be 952MHz-954MHz or 950MHz-956MHz give way to RFID.. China, Hong Kong is the 865MHz-868MHz.. While China is the scope of the present GSM, CDMA and other occupation, .so in the clean-up will be considered based on the 917MHz-922MHz assigned to RFID use, but also use 860Mhz band to say the following, has not yet made a final decision.. 7, Q: EPC standards What are the characteristics? .. <BR> A: Because the current EPC Gen2 (referred to below on the Gen2 and Gen1 see description later) standard only for the UHF band, it is suitable for long-distance read-write (Read ID up to a distance of .about 8m). therefore mainly used in logistics and other areas of need for long distance communications.. EPC UHF currently no set standards other than band.. That is the main target of EPC is logistics, especially the logistics of the circulation, such as .for shopping.. This limit in a very narrow target range of the maximum benefit is to reduce the cost of RFID tags.. Costs to a certain extent, such as 5 cents (0.4 yuan), can be used on commodity electronic tag.. .EPC Gen2 air interface standards in the fusion of the Gen1 and ISO agreement on the advantages of air interface, plus some borrowed from other communication system information, such as from the 802.11 Wi-FI router to achieve the communication reader and tag. This agreement than .the existing RFID faster, more reliable, and can solve the problem of noise pollution on the environment.. Approved by the EPC EPCglobal standard communication protocol has been submitted to ISO, will become the international standard.. Although the definition is for the completion of .the Gen2 UHF band, but the EPC is to be developed and high-frequency (HF) and 2.45GMW band standards.. 8, Q: Electronic Product Code EPC system contain?. <BR> A: EPC system is a highly advanced ., integrated and complex systems.. The ultimate goal is for each individual product to establish a global open standard identification code.. It consists of electronic product code (EPC) system, radio frequency identification (RFID) systems and information networks constitute the three systems ... Mainly by the coding standard, electronic tags, readers, middleware, Savant system (neural network software), to explain the object name service (ONS: Object Name Service), Physical Markup Language (PML: Physical Markup Language) and other six .. composition.. EPC system and the main content from the next table, said: 9, Q: EPC information network system is how to achieve the ID information retrieval?. <BR> A: EPC for the ID information retrieval components are: .(1) Savant, (2) PML (Physical Markup Language), (3) ONS (Object Name Service) for three points.. Savant of which is connected RFID reader operation of the system software.. PML (Physical Markup Language) is .to provide information associated with the ID of the server.. ONS in identifying those provided by the PML server ID information, play a DNS (Domain Name Server) in a similar role.. It is at.. Once detected, a specific ID Savant .after Bianxiang ONS server query corresponding to the ID of the PML server address.. Then, based on the address to the inquiries by the PML server, you can get accurate information corresponding to ID.. 10, Q: What is the EPC's Gen1? .<BR> A: Gen1 EPCglobal standard is the predecessor of Auto-ID Center developed.. The Gen1 EPC is the meaning of the first generation, Gen is the generation (generation) of the acronym.. It includes Class 1 Class 0 protocols .and agreements, including Class 0 tag is read under the agreement, and can not write; and Class 1 tags, although under the agreement is available to read and write, but can only write once, after finished. become read-only label, both .labels are not under the agreement is confidential.. Class 1 and Class 2 EPC protocol is the standard protocol.. 11, Q: What is the EPC's Gen2? A: There are many problems because of Gen1, EPCglobal Gen1 issued in the near future .immediately began to develop a new standard protocol Gen2.. EPCglobal Gen2 is actually developed Class 1 UHF RFID frequency band of second-generation air interface standards.. Under the agreement in the Gen2 tags can be repeated to read and write, and increased security performance ... Its standards and ISO18000-6 similar.. Later reference Gen2 features.. 12, Q: EPC Gen2 experience how the development process?. <BR> A: Auto-ID Center's goal is to standardize coding systems and network structure, .and as the air interface protocol by ISO standards.. Early, EAN and the UCC is committed towards establishing a global ISO's UHF protocol label (GTAG) standards.. However, Auto-ID Center against this, because the UHF ISO protocol too complex, .and thus lead to the high cost of RFID tags.. <BR> Auto-ID Center began to develop independently of the UHF protocol, the initial plans to develop a set of tags for different levels of agreement.. The higher the level of .the label better.. The result has been the adjustment program.. <BR> End, Auto-ID Center Class 0 and Class 1 with two different protocols, which means that end users must purchase a different reader to read the Class 1 and .Class 0 tags.. <BR> 2003 年, Auto-ID Center's EPC technology UCC has been recognized by, and started cooperation with the EAN organizations, so that the commercialization of EPC technology.. November 2003, EPCglobal was established, Auto- .ID Center to Class 0 and Class 1 protocols referred to EPCglobal.. Later, the meeting approved by EPCglobal Class 0 and EPC Class 1 protocol as standard.. <BR> Class 0 and Class 1 protocols have two drawbacks, one is Class 0 .and Class 1 protocols are not compatible and less compatible with the ISO.. The second is that they can not do over the globe.. For example, Class 0 when transmitting the signal using a frequency, and receiving signals with a different frequency.. .This is different from European standards.. <BR> 2004 年, EPCglobal started the second-generation protocol (Gen2) the development, the agreement with the Gen1 different, but to make the EPC standard will be closer to ISO standards.. December .2004, EPCglobal has passed the Gen2.. This Gen2 and ISO standards also become the standard RFID product manufacturers.. <BR> Gen2 very close to the ISO, but with the ISO on the AFI is different.. All ISO standards are AFI ., which is a 8bit encoding, used to identify the tag source, to prevent the monopoly of EPCglobal standard.. However, manufacturers have started to produce products with the Gen2 standard, which will be formed in the supply chain trends in the global use of .Gen2.. <BR> EPC's Gen2 standard will 18000-6 Type C form, in March 2006 approved the ratification by ISO, ISO standards into the system.. 13, Q: Why Gen2 standard is a very comprehensive standard?. < .BR> A: Gen2 air interface standards in the fusion of the Gen1 and ISO agreement on the advantages of air interface, plus some borrowed from other communication system information, such as from the 802.11 Wi-FI router, to achieve the reader. and labeling .of communication, it will be more than the existing RFID protocols fast, reliable, and can solve the noise problem on the environment.. So the Gen2 is not a general concept, but there are specific targeted.. <BR> Commonly used radio .frequency identification with HF ISM band frequency range, UHF 860MHz-960MHz band, MW 2.45GHz band and so on.. Different bands have technical characteristics of radio frequency identification, however, the application for a large EPC EAN logistics, supply chain management applications, .UHF band with a read-write distance, the higher communication speed and other advantages and become the most suitable frequency bands for these applications.. Therefore, since the EPCglobal over Auto-ID Center at the beginning to set up a special working group of hardware .(Hard ware Action Group, HAG) responsible for EPC RFID air interface technology, is the first of the UHF band.. The working group is almost a collection of the world's leading supplier of radio frequency identification hardware in the existing UHF radio frequency identification standards .(eg ISO / IEC 18000-6), the user needs and related technologies have been based on the reserves, the Working Group under the EPC. the special needs of the application before and after two years of analysis and reasoning of the final development of .what we call the Gen2 standard.. From that point on, we can say that the general Gen2 standard is a different air interface standards for RFID.. Technically, this standard is a very complete standard, of course, is to realize the consequences of .this complexity increase the difficulty of chip design and manufacturing costs are increased accordingly.. 14, Q: Compared with the Gen1, Gen2 What are the advantages of the most basic?. <BR> A: Compared with Gen1, Gen2 is the most .basic advantages: <BR> faster read rate Gen2 protocol is to enable the RFID tag reader can read and write data faster than the Gen1 Protocol. designed.. Gen2 tags to readers to support the highest rate of change can be achieved 640Kbit/sec ., comparison, Gen1's Class 0 is 140Kbit/sec, Class 1 for the 80Kbit/sec, the ratio of the increase means that companies can use much higher than before. rate to read the label on the reading speed to suit site requirements.. In .addition, Gen2 tags to each less than 20 milliseconds to write 16bit.. Write a 96bit of the EPC, with the beginning (some label to store additional information) no more than 140msec, and allows readers to more than seven tags / sec speed of .work, which can meet the current production line speeds in real time. requirements, so the scene without slowing down their production line speed can be written for the tag EPC.. <BR> New Gen2 longer password length password using 32bit and also to .terminate, lock and open the memory.. This means that at least more than 400 million kinds of passwords to choose from, except by permission of the owner of the label, there is no one can destroy or stop the work of state tags.. .15, Q: Gen2's performance improvement or technical characteristics?. <BR> A: Gen2's performance improvement or the technical characteristics of these areas are the following: <BR> First, Gen2 in the development process, along with the world's major regions .of the radio spectrum for radio frequency identification division. and implementation.. So <BR> Gen2 standard fully considered within the scope of universal world, Gen2 standard specifies a variety of encoding, signal modulation, making the RFID tags and readers to the radio .regulatory standards in line with the premise of maximum lift system. performance.. <BR> Secondly, Gen2 standard put forward a new dense reader (Dense-Reader) mode solution of the problem behind us specific understanding.. <BR> Third ., Gen2 standard effectively Ghost Read (phantom tag) greatly reduces the probability of occurrence, theoretical analysis of a large logistics applications for the EPC, the probability of its occurrence is only one / year.. <BR> Fourth, a clear specification of .the kill command and Lock commands used to implement privacy protection needs of users.. 16, Q: Dense-Reader Mode What works?. <BR> A: Gen2 Dense Reader mode is also in the EPC for the big logistics and supply chain .management made a specific application.. In these applications, often in a relatively small physical space, such as a warehouse, but there are a dozen or even dozens of reader's situation.. Unlike other wireless communication systems, radio frequency identification system, the signal .strength returned from the label is very weak, and low-cost tag is passive, can not achieve the complexity of coding and modulation, the label basically only to amplitude modulation. returned signal.. Therefore, even if the reader choose a different way communication .channel, the channel near the channel, the reader will still work interfere with readers and tags.. To solve this problem, the previous solution is to work before the reader in the channel's signal strength by listening to decide whether to open, the so- .called "Prior to the hearing" (Listen Before Talk) ways.. <BR> First, but the low efficiency of this approach, and an sidelobe suppression poor reader can easily read and write in other workplace settings to work invalid.. .<BR> Second, to solve this problem, Gen2 developed a special Dense-Reader Mode.. This mode is the main communication rate by reducing the signal bandwidth to reduce the send and receive signals, while the reader transceiver strictly limited channel bandwidth, .through the use of roll-off coefficient of the filter to suppress leakage and noise-band signal, enabling each channel of the. between readers and tags without disturbing each other.. Meanwhile, for the labels, through the design of decoding filters to enhance .tag reader on the other channel interference suppression.. <BR> Third, to be a vivid metaphor: If a road width of some, we divided into a number of lanes, if the car's speed limit is 120 km, for safety considerations, .lane width is relatively large, perhaps we can only draw .4 lanes, but if the lower speed limit to 60 km, then the impact between the cars and trucks is reduced, we may be able to set aside 6 lanes, and if further reduce .the speed limit, such as we are riding bicycles, then the same. the road we may be able to run 20 of the bicycle without disturbing each other.. If we add in the driveway in good isolation between (suppression filter), then we .can further enhance the number of bicycles to run.. (Zhu Zheng) 17, Q: a longer reading distance of the system where the benefits of literacy rate?. <BR> A: Long distance is most of the RFID reading system performance .optimization.. Identification of a longer read distance for the increased rate, throughput, and reliability have helped.. 18, Q: How can we have a long reading distance?. <BR> A: increased reading distance is between the radio frequency .identification systems, in general we can to improve the reading distance of several aspects: to reduce the power consumption of the chip tags is the most direct means; as the tag chip's core technology. the efficiency of the rectifier circuit related to the reading distance is .an important factor, the use of high efficiency rectifier circuit and components are currently used solutions; reduce interference between channels is also an important means to improve the reading distance.. (Zhu Zheng) 19, Q: Ghost Read how the matter?. < .; BR> A: Ghost Read, yet do not see what an accurate translation of the domestic way, I do translations for the Phantom label.. So Ghost Read what is it?. That the reader was actually does not exist in the communication range .of the label, the label may be stored on the EPC number is in other products, other physical space may also be in the whole system does not appear anywhere. before.. Loss in terms relative to the label, Ghost Read more severe impact of .the system.. (Zhu Zheng) 20, Q: Gen2 is how to avoid Ghost Read appear?. <BR> A: The main methods of solving Ghost Read rely on strict timing structure, random number recognition and effective communication, data integrity .checks and other means to be avoided.. To Gen2, for example, the reader must be re-defined eight inspection mechanism to be able to get a tag in the EPC code, so that the occurrence probability of Ghost Read will be greatly reduced. .. (Zhu Zheng) 21, Q: Gen2 technology of how the future?. <BR> A: Gen2 is a complete UHF band RFID standards, and the bar code as its future will be a part of our daily lives.. Review .of radio frequency identification technology in the past few years development, we can see the whole community's understanding of radio frequency identification technology from scratch, and then the fanatical pursuit, and then appeared a low ebb.. It is truly into the application, resulting in .the value of the time.. Gillette, through the use of radio frequency identification technology, has reduced the stock rate of 20%.. We are indeed pleased to see that more and more success stories.. The tags, readers and other hardware costs .are also falling, Gen2 technology has been the arrival of large-scale application close.. (Zhu Zheng) 22.. Q: using EPC C1 Gen2 air interface protocol necessarily need to adopt EPC code?. <BR> A: not required ... EPC C1 Gen2 air interface protocol is a very tolerant protocol, developed to consider the needs of non-EPC code.. In the EPC C1 Gen2 v1.1.0 part of the final version detailed definition of the protocol control .characters.. Simply speaking, one in the control word that is stored in a EPC encoding, if the control word is the EPC code is stored in the corresponding EPC other bits of information, if not the EPC code, compared with non-EPC code ., the control words are stored. is in line with ISO 15961 standard application types AFI coding.. And international standards in order to achieve the compatibility.. Based on this framework, we can use the code in line with our application requirements.. 23 ., Q: EPC which must follow the rules?. <BR> A: EPC must follow the following principles: <BR> global universal, open, neutral.. <BR> In intellectual property (IP) aspects of royalty- .free (Royalty free).. <BR> Low price, high performance RFID tags and readers.. <BR> Tag as simple as possible, ID information maintained in the network.. <BR> All aspects of supply chain security .on both the 4, Q: UID is how is it?. <BR> A: Ubiquitous ID Center (Ubiquitous ID Center) University of Tokyo, Osaka is the village of Kin, chaired by Professor TRON project-based, established in December .2002 the standardization groups.. Its purpose is to automatically identify objects as the core of RFID.. Not only to replace the bar code (one-dimensional bar code and two dimensional bar code) as the goal, but also in various areas of daily .life provide a comprehensive basis to promote new services to the application of RFID.. As a basic digital ID using the composition of the 128 U-CODE, we often called UID code.. Centre to study how the ID was issued by such time and .place to automatically generate ID-based approach.. Another system UID RFID tags are not limited to the usual, but also equipped with a CPU of the encrypted electronic tags.. As a UID system covers and covers a wide range of application of RFID tags ., so the main features of the system in various types of tags to improve the existing system of standards as a precondition to implement standardization.. 25, Q: What are the International Organization for Standardization ISO standards?. <BR> A: tag .and reader communication protocol between the specifications being standardized by the International Organization for Standardization ISO to develop.. Standards have been identified as ISO14443, ISO15693 and ISO18000 and other species.. ISO14443 and ISO15693 <BR> which also utilized for the 13.56MHz frequency .band.. ISO14443 certification and electronic money is about a high degree of confidentiality as the case of the use or non-contact IC card, RFID communication standards.. There are Type A (IC phone cards, etc.), Type B (identity .documents), Type C (FeliCa) of the three.. ISO15693 is to apply for purposes such as a commodity is the prerequisite for RFID communication specifications.. Provides the basic instruction of memory reading and writing but does not provide encryption and other security functions ... <BR> Recently, ISO has developed and published the ISO 18000 standard, this standard is written, including in the supply chain for cargo tracking air interface protocol.. ISO18000 both the world's seven major RFID frequency standards.. ISO14443 and ISO15693 .as well as the contents of which are summarized as follows seven marked: <BR> International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a RFID standards for tracking the animal.. <BR> ISO11784 specifies the tag data in the form.. .<BR> ISO11785 defines the air interface protocol.. <BR> ISO has also established a testing RFID tags and readers consistency standards (ISO 18047), and test the performance of RFID tags and readers, the standard (ISO 18046). .. <BR> About the use of RFID in the supply chain to the standards for small cargo tracking.. About forty feet of the proposed ISO shipping containers, pallets, transportation, and other special terms of specific cases ...

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