Saturday, January 1, 2011
【School】 UPS installation process weak Detailed】.
<br> <BR> UPS installation, the user must do for the UPS input and output distribution. .UPS manufacturers will generally provide users with complete and detailed installation requirements and considerations UPS, only to meet this requirement, UPS power supply system until the user access to work. .In this, the author under the UPS input and output of different types of finishing the UPS installation requirements and notes, together with examples of power distribution diagram and power strips, hoping to help the reader. .<BR> In practical application, engineers can install the UPS according to the actual situation of the relevant parameters to users fill in the box, so that the user requirements of the construction here. .The following description of one by one: <BR> a user input for the UPS to provide electricity and its fluctuation value is generally less than the nominal UPS mains fluctuations in the value of allowing, for example, allows a type of UPS nominal input voltage fluctuations in the mains 220V .+20%, then this may require the user to fluctuations in the +15% electricity, it is a good UPS running; zero voltage with general requirements in non-load is less than 1.5V, with a full load is less than 2V, engineers can .according to the scene and raised the value of the load requirements. .<BR> Second, UPS in order to eliminate common mode interference, zero, FireWire on the ground are added between the filter capacitor, zero, fire on the ground have current, may result in zero, firing on the current range, so that leakage of the circuit with .trip the. .Therefore, before UPS and the load level can not be installed with earth leakage protection circuit breakers, UPS and the load so as to avoid accidental power-down. .Here we must point out is that the user with UPS's main purpose is to important to the safety equipment such as computers running, not to protect the safety of personnel, it should not be charged on some lines, such as sockets, circuit breakers and other frequently swap, open .co. . <BR> Three electricity from a security point of view, the zero line (especially the trunk) can not be broken, even if off have zero fire double break. .<BR> Fourth, in order to eliminate interference, most of the UPS input and output zero-line zero-line is isolated or is the result of choke, so when you can not do UPS UPS output distribution (ie, load) of the zero-line access .the zero line to the input power distribution busbars. .Users can UPS output (load) a zero-zero line received a separate line of rafts. .Some brands of UPS such as APC silcon series, Powerware's powerwave prime and so on, the zero line in the UPS internal input and output through the zero line to the zero line to the input and output (load) the zero line connected to the same busbars. .<BR> Five, UPS input circuit breaker is designed to control the UPS input power alone off, so the UPS input circuit breaker will not draw a line under the mouth of the other electrical equipment, so as not to affect the normal UPS input off. .Here we must point out, some users asked UPS after the mains failure, UPS battery back-up work by a very long time, so, UPS are equipped with external battery capacity will be very long delay, in order to ensure this part of the external battery to .have sufficient charge current (typically the number of external battery 10% of the total AH), UPS manufacturers will add another long delay with a battery charger, the charger's AC power input with the UPS power off while .in order to ensure that there is electricity, the add-on external battery charger, electricity off, the battery charger immediately by the discharge to the UPS inverter. .Therefore, this AC charger with the UPS input is connected to the input port under the same circuit breaker. .<BR> Six, in the circuit breaker for the UPS input and output matching, the first nominal voltage circuit breakers required to comply with UPS's rated input and output voltage, such as single-pole single out the optional UPS (or N +1, or .poles) AC220V or 250V rated voltage of the circuit breakers, UPS optional three-three triple (or N +3, or four-pole) rated voltage of AC380V or 415V circuit breaker. .Pay attention to the rated breaking capacity circuit breaker ICU manufacturers to comply with the requirements of UPS, UPS is 10KA average small or 6KA, medium and large UPS require more than the 30KA. .<BR> Nominal rated current of the circuit breaker is greater than the largest UPS input current and output current, the general UPS manufacturers will be given directly input and output circuit breaker rated current value or the largest UPS input and output current value, if not to .that can also be calculated by the following formula: <BR> which IINMAX maximum input current, unit A. . <BR> P nominal capacity for the UPS unit VA. .<BR> PFOUT the output power factor. .<BR> PC for charging power, unit W, such as PC manufacturers are not given the value can be calculated by the formula: PC ≈ VC × IC, here are charging voltage VC for the UPS unit V. . UPS are charging for the current IC (or the maximum charge current), unit A. . <BR> ΗAC-AC at full load for the UPS AC input to AC output efficiency (a UPS full load with a linear output active power and the input active power ratio), is a constant. .<BR> PFIN the input power factor. .<BR> IOUTMAX maximum output current for the UPS unit A. . <BR> UOUTMIN minimum output voltage for the UPS unit V. . On-line UPS is the regulator output, so UOUTMIN desirable 220V. .Some line interactive UPS, when the AC input voltage within a certain range (such as APC Smart series is 192V ~ 250V), UPS is a direct output of this voltage to the load, and only in the city, when the input voltage exceeds this range ., UPS input voltage was adjusted (12% automatically boost or buck) output to the load, so this case UPS UPS minimum output voltage should be no adjustment to the minimum when the input voltage. .<BR> UINMIN UPS full load for the factory gives work permit (not to switch the battery-powered) Minimum AC input voltage. .<BR> In addition, many manufacturers will allow UPS overload short-term work (for the UPS nominal power of 100% to 125%), over-current circuit breaker also allows 125% in the 1 to 2 hours after the action, so this overload .situation is generally not considered. .<BR> Example: a APC Symmetra 16KVA single out a single UPS, the input voltage range of 155V ~ 276V AC (full load), the input power factor of 0.98, the output power factor of 0.7, recharge power 1.2KW, AC ~ AC full load efficiency of 0.91, .then the maximum input current IINMAX = (16000 × 0.7 +1200) / (0.91 × 0.98 × 155) = 89.7A, the maximum output current IOUTMAX = 16000/220 = 72.7A. .The UPS input and output circuit breaker rated current 100A, respectively selected and 80A. .<BR> UPS brought the load (computer switching power supply is the rectifier load) usually was slightly emotional, power factor is generally between 0.6 and 0.7, UPS even with the input power factor correction circuit, walk in UPS bypass ., due to the load of the reason, the input is inductive, and inductive load startup current of the larger, so in the choice of input, output circuit breaker, its release curve should choose D (10 to 20 times rated current release ..) .<BR> Some UPS manufacturers take into account the circuit breaker (including miniature circuit breakers and molded case circuit breaker MCCB MCB), in some cases may produce malfunction, causing input and output (load) distribution of unexpected power outages, so .will require the use of load isolation switch or load isolation switch with fuse. .When the selected switches and fuses, the rated current but also greater than the maximum input current and the maximum output current. .<BR> To note that the majority of the three single out models, UPS switch to bypass the work, all the load from the input three-phase power in one phase to the burden, so in the choice of the input circuit breaker (a multi-polar .) is the rated operating current at full load should be not less than the maximum single-phase input current. .<BR> Seven UPS input and output connections for selection is also a reference diameter of the maximum current per phase, taking into account the three-phase equipment that may exist in the third harmonic current line, so one out of three-and zero-three-three .line (especially the output of the zero line) diameter of not less than A-phase (three single out A as the similarities are often bypass electricity) diameter. .General also called for protection of ground wire diameter with the same A-phase. .<BR> UPS BVR generally used in the cable line, YZ, YC soft rubber multi-core multi-core cable or RVV line of soft plastic sleeve. .<BR> Current density (per square millimeter in cross-sectional area can flow through the current amperage) can be estimated the following values: 1.5mm2 ≈ 8,2.5 mm2 ≈ 7,4 mm2 ≈ 6.5,6 mm2 ≈ 6,10 mm2 ≈ 5.5,16 .mm2 ≈ 5,25 mm2 ≈ 4,35 mm2 ≈ 3.5,50 mm2 ≈ 3,70 mm2 ≈ 2.5,95 mm2 or above the maximum of not more than 2. .<BR> Eight, UPS and external long delay, the connection between the battery should not be too long, otherwise the loss of connection in the battery voltage drop is too large. .In addition, users often pay great attention to the work environment, the host UPS temperature and humidity, the battery can be placed together with the host cell has also been a good working environment. .<BR> Nine, preferably the user's load distribution control multiple classification. .Slip occurred at the end of a current or short circuit, it will not lead to the same level of other branches or electrical equipment on a power-down, and the next level of the circuit breaker should not exceed the total value of the constant current level .130% to avoid the next level of each branch circuit breaker or overload did not work full time (circuit breaker does not trip), on a circuit breaker tripped because of overload, so that all loads have lost power. .In addition, on a circuit breaker trip curves and trip time is greater than the next level of the circuit breaker trip curves and trip time, so as not to slip a peak in the lower level, when the waves on the beach or a short circuit .level circuit breaker circuit breaker trips before the next level, resulting in total load power. .<BR> UPS for the three-three-phase requires the user to try to balance the load, so as to avoid a phase in the three-phase UPS overload leaving UPS into bypass state, reduce the UPS to the load level of protection. .<BR> Twelve, recommends that users set separately for the UPS and its load, power strips, so that the load on the UPS and the protection of a centralized, reliable control. .The power strips to comply with national standards. .<BR> Type classification by Protection: <BR> ① The first category of protection types: solid foreign objects into the electrical appliance to prevent and to prevent human touch or movement within the live part of the protection. .The first type of classification methods and protection defined below. .<BR> First type of classification and definition of protective <BR> definition of protection referred to unprotected <BR> 0 no special protection <BR> 1 diameter larger than 50mm of solid protection to prevent a diameter greater than 50mm of solid foreign body .shell, to prevent a large part of the body (eg hands) incidental or accidental contact with live or moving parts of the shell, but can not prevent conscious access to these parts is greater than 12mm in diameter <BR> 2 protection to prevent the diameter of solid .12mm solid entry in the shell, the shell to prevent the hand touching live or moving parts <BR> 3 larger than 2.5mm of solid protection to prevent a diameter greater than 2.5mm of solid foreign matter into the shell, to prevent the thickness (or diameter) .greater than 1mm, tools, metal lines, and live or moving parts of the shell hit <BR> 4 larger than 1mm solid protection to prevent the diameter of solid foreign objects greater than 1mm into the shell, to prevent the thickness (or diameter) is greater than 1mm .tools, wire and other live or moving parts of the shell hit <BR> 5 dust to prevent dust from entering the extent to affect the product operation, to completely prevent touching live or moving parts of the shell <BR> 6 completely prevent dust from entering the dense dust shell .live within the shell to completely prevent the touching or moving parts <BR> ② The second category of protection type: to prevent water from entering the internal to harmful levels of protection. .The second category of protection methods and types of classification definitions below. .<BR> Second type of classification and definition of protective <BR> protection referred to the definition of <BR> 0 no protection is no special protection <BR> 1 perpendicular to the drip drip into the inside of the product should not be directly <BR> 2 15 ° .drip with a plumb line into the 15 ° angle within the drip, can not directly enter the inside of the product should be <BR> 3 anti-watering water in any direction the product should be no harmful effects <BR> 4 violent waves or splash .strength of the product water should be no harmful effects <BR> 5 against water spray in any direction the product should be no harmful effects <BR> 6 anti-violent waves or strong waves spray water on the flowers or products should be strong .No harmful effects of flooding <BR> 7 products in the required pressure and time immersed in water, the amount of water should be no harmful effects <BR> 8 diving products in the required pressure for a long timesubmerged in water, into the water should be no harmful .<BR> that the product of a sign of protection of enclosure by the letters "IP" and two numbers. .The first number indicates the first level of protection type, the second number indicates the second level of protection types. .The first category of protection for a single type of flag rank, were omitted from the location of the figures should be the letter "X" added. .The first category of protection, such as IP3X that type 3, IPX2 said second protective type 2. .<BR> Engineers can place equipment installation, location and degree of protection requested by UPS manufacturers, general indoor distribution box installed protection class IP30. .<BR> XI, customers know that can not be air conditioning, lighting and other equipment, access to UPS output, but the user is doing when the UPS load distribution, UPS load special socket outlet with non-UPS load no obvious distinguishing mark, it could result in .UPS load into the user mistakenly UPS load of non-exclusive outlet, the normal operation of UPS, so dedicated outlet in the UPS load significantly different from the other outlet to the special flag. .<BR> Second, some of the needs of single-phase three-wire power supply of the UPS load equipment in its internal, neutral and protective earth wire is connected together, if the UPS load socket zero, site wiring, it is possible .UPS and the load caused the damage, so the users do the load distribution, be sure to check the UPS load receptacle, FireWire polarity, can not reverse. .For the socket, the face of socket to protect the earth as a starting point, in a clockwise order, the order, the fire, zero. .For the plug, the face of the plug to protect the earth as a starting point, in a clockwise order, the order, the zero fire. .<BR> Thirteen, the working environment temperature (abbreviated). .<BR> Fourth, floor loading capacity (abbreviated). .<BR> Fifth,external battery for the UPS is installed without the user's own, usually by UPS manufacturers or dealers to install, so are not presented in the installation requirements. .Briefly outline the battery is properly installed and the basic conditions for safe operation, only for reference. .<BR> Multilevel batteries in series, try to avoid laying the two adjacent cell pressure exceeds 120V, the voltage value of the maximum safe voltage for the human body. .When the battery conductive parts of pressure than 120V, the proposed distance of the two conductive parts of 0.8 meters. .<BR> Charge and discharge the battery circuit breaker or fuse must be fitted with overcurrent protection, and this protection device as close as possible from the battery, and some can even be connected in the battery fuse group, so that when the battery .The output of wire insulation is damaged or output short circuit, the battery output voltage can be quickly cut off. .<BR> Battery over-current protection circuit breaker should choose a dedicated DC circuit breakers, such as ABB's S280UC-Z, S500UC-B series, SIEMENS (Siemens) 5SX5-B series, MOELLER (Muller) and L7-DC Series .such as miniature circuit breakers. .Common AC circuit breaker (including molded case circuit breakers and miniature circuit breaker MCCB MCB) at the rated voltage under the same circumstances, carved in the DC circuit breaking current capacity (interrupter effect) is weaker than the exchange loop, because the current generation circuit .The arc is sustained, while the AC current zero crossing of that moment, the arc will be extinguished, so the AC circuit breaker in the DC Circuit to reach its nominal rated breaking capacity, it is necessary for the rated working voltage drop .If CLIPSAL (Clipsal) of E4CB Series B Class 2A ~ 63A miniature circuit breakers, the rated voltage of single pole AC 230V, rated breaking capacity of 6000A, while in the DC circuit, to maintain constant breaking capacity of6000A ., the pole is only rated voltage 48V DC. .Multi-polar may also be used with AC circuit breaker in order to keep a very nominal breaking capacity, improve the DC rated voltage. .<BR> Order to prevent large peak charging, surge fleeing into the battery circuit, charging the battery explosion, the other to ensure that battery over-current or short circuit in the quick action, the circuit breaker trip curve of the best B-Class . (3 to 5 times the rated current release) or Z class (2 to 3 times rated current trip), trip time is about 4ms. .Similarly, also the best choice <BR> DC-speed fuse melting type. .Fuses are classified according to their function of its operating class. .Working class by the two English letters, the first a letter of the function class, and the first two letters is that the protected object. .<BR> 1 letter: a local area protection (backup protection fuse), g the full range of protection (general purpose fuses.) .<BR> The first two letters: G cable and line protection (General Application), M switch electrical protection (motor circuit protection), R semiconductor protection (for rectifier protection), L cable and line protection (according to DIN VDE regulations) .. .<BR> Full range fuse (gL / gG, gR), it is safe to disconnect both overload current, short circuit current can be safely disconnected. .The local area can only be used as a short-circuit protection fuses (aM, aR). .<BR> GL (DIN VDE) / gG (IEC) the full range of cable and line protection; <BR> aM (DIN VDE / IEC) local area motor circuit protection; <BR> aR (DIN VDE / IEC) local area .semiconductor protection; <BR> gR (DIN VDE / IEC) the full range of semiconductor protection fast action. .<BR> Battery overload or short circuit protection can be aR or DC fuse gR levels, such as SIEMENS (Siemens) SILIZED series fuse. .Over-current protection circuit breaker or fuse <BR> breaking capacity of DC UPS manufacturers requirements to be met. .The APC Silcon UPS, for example, the battery voltage of ± 384V, maximum charging voltage of the charger ± 460V, following the requirements of the various models of the DC breaking current. .<BR> Type the maximum discharge current (A) the maximum short circuit current (KA) <BR> DP310E 16 10 <BR> DP320E 33 10 <BR> DP340E 65 10 <BR> DP360E 96 20 <BR> DP380E 128 20 <BR> DP3120E .195 20 <BR> DP3160E 259 20 <BR> DP3240E 388 40 <BR> DP3320E 514 40 <BR> DP3480E 775 40 <BR> overcurrent circuit breaker or fuse rated voltage (DC) should be greater than the UPS batteries .float voltage, because although UPS and battery charger during normal working pressure difference between the groups is not great, but if the charger or the charger output correct negative internal short-circuit connection, it may be close to the battery float .voltage when the voltage will all add to the circuit breaker, in order to ensure that circuit breakers can effectively breaking point, the circuit breaker rated voltage must be greater than the UPS battery float voltage. .<BR> Overcurrent circuit breaker or fuse rated current should be larger than the maximum battery discharge current, battery cable diameter should also refer to the selection of the maximum battery discharge current, the maximum discharge current is calculated as follows: .<BR> IBATMAX maximum discharge current for the battery, unit A. . <BR> P nominal capacity for the UPS unit VA. .<BR> PFOUT the output power factor. .<BR> ΗDC-AC inverter for the UPS in battery mode, with a pure resistive full load operation, the DC from the battery to the UPS AC output efficiency, is a constant. .<BR> UBATOFF work for the UPS inverter when the battery power off battery voltage, unit V. . Note that some manufacturers set off when a large current discharge voltage low current discharge is less than the shutdown voltage, such as the APC Symmetra Series UPS DC operating voltage of 120V DC, at 50% load, the battery voltage shutdown .to 105V, 50% of the load, battery shutdown voltage 100V. .<BR> Also to the above APC Symmetra 16KVA UPS single out a single example, the full DC ~ AC efficiency is 0.95, then the maximum battery discharge current IBATMAX = (16000 × 0.7) / (0.95 × 100) = 117.9A. .Optional series 3NA3832-2C SIEMENS NH fuse as batteries insurance, the rated voltage of DC 250V, rated current 125A, rated breaking capacity DC 50KA. .<BR> Left external battery for a UPS schematic <BR> S protection device for DC circuit breakers, from over-current protection role. .<BR> F to speed melting insurance, the internal short circuit when the charger, this insurance quick fuse, and S with the protection of the battery pack. .<BR> D High-power diode, when the battery polarity reverse, the diode provides a larger short circuit current, and the S jump to protect the battery pack and host. .<BR> Fb melting rate for the optional insurance, connected in series in the battery, to prevent internal short-circuit batteries. .<BR> Sixteen, for the UPS 24-hour operation requires the user to configure a separate service for the UPS bypass distribution box is necessary. .UPS maintenance bypass through the distribution box and the correct operation, the user can load the UPS without interruption to switch to the distribution box next to the road maintenance manual, and then the UPS host completely uncharged, engineers can safely UPS .maintenance of the. .When maintenance work is completed, then through the maintenance bypass of UPS and power distribution boxes for this operation, the user can also load the UPS without interruption from the manual maintenance bypass switch back to UPS line output circuit. .Maintenance bypass distribution box structure and method of operation is as follows. . (Single in single out type UPS,) <BR> K1 for the UPS input circuit breaker, K2 for the UPS output circuit breaker, K3 as UPS maintenance bypass switch. .<BR> Normal boot sequence (the initial state of K1, K2, K3 are OFF) <BR> ① pull the K1 to ON, the normal start UPS. .<BR> ② confirm the UPS output voltage is normal, the K2 pull to ON. .<BR> ③ Open the load, then K3 remain OFF. .<BR> Bypass switch to maintain the order of (the initial state of K1, K2, is ON, K3 is OFF) <BR> ① confirm the normal electricity supply will hit the bypass status of the host UPS (internal bypass). .<BR> ② confirm the K3, and the exit pressure does not exceed 2V, will pull into the K3 ON. .<BR> ③ sure the load is operating normally, it will pull to the K2 OFF. .<BR> ④ pull the K1 to OFF, then UPS equipment has been disconnected and the entire power distribution circuit, can be maintained. .<BR> * If UPS can not play the internal bypass, you need to complete the normal sequence of the UPS shut down, K2 pull to OFF, K1 pull to OFF, then the load will be closed. .If the load needs to continue its work in identifying the K1, K2, for the OFF state, the K3 pull to ON, then turn the load. .<BR> Back to normal working order (the initial state of K1, K2, is OFF, K3 is ON) <BR> ① pull the K1 to ON. .<BR> ② Start UPS, confirmed UPS into bypass mode (internal bypass). .<BR> ③ confirm the K2, and the exit pressure does not exceed 2V, it will pull to the K2 ON. .<BR> ④ sure the load is operating normally, it will pull to the K3 OFF. .<BR> ⑤ will hit the online UPS from the bypass, this time UPS returns to normal operation. .<BR> With single-phase UPS installation requirements <BR> ________ __K single in single out models installation requirements <BR> 1. Requires UPS single-phase three-wire power supply system. . (Zero, fire, ground) electricity in the 220V ±% less volatility, zero ground voltage is less than V. . <BR> 2. UPS and the load circuit before the classcan not bring leakage protection switch. .<BR> 3. UPS input circuit breaker or the zero line can not have insurance. . (If you need off the zero line, the zero-fire double fault.) <BR> 4. UPS input and output zero line zero line (ie, UPS load neutral) to be separated, can not be mixed then. .<BR> 5. UPS can not enter the firing line of fire and other electrical equipment were received under the mouth of a circuit breaker. .<BR> 6. Input circuit breaker rated voltage ___V, rated current ___A, breaking capacity ___KA. .<BR> Output voltage circuit breakers rated ___V, rated current ___A, breaking capacity ___KA. .<BR> 7. Enter zero, Firewire multi-strand copper with ___mm2 cord. .<BR> Output zero, FireWire with ___mm2, multi-strand copper ground with ___mm2 cord. .<BR> 8. Clients such as UPS battery outside with long delay, (the user is the host of batteries placed side by side with the UPS) the length of the connection between the battery and the host no more than ___ meters. .<BR> 9. Recommended load distribution by grade, multi-channel control, and the total rated capacity of the next pole circuit breaker should not exceed 130% on a pole. .<BR> 10. Recommended to be set separately for the UPS and the load distribution panel, protection class IP. .<BR> 11.UPS load socket outlet with other non-UPS loads should be separated. .<BR> 12. UPS load receptacle, FireWire is not reversed. . (Left zero and right fire, above the ground.) <BR> 13. Recommend UPS and battery dry environment, the temperature between 20 ~ 25 ℃. . <BR> 14. The floor of the bearing is not less than ___kg/m2, installation area of not less than ___m2..